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Signs and Symptoms of Visual Deficiencies

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Vision is more than just 20/20 


The Hidden Link Between Vision and Learning: Why Millions of Learning-Disabled Children are Misdiagnosed by Wendy Beth Rosen

Impact at least 5 million children:

Borsting E, Rouse M, Deland P, Hovett S, Kimura D, Park M, et al. Association of symptoms and convergence and accommodative insufficiency in school-age children. Optometry. 2003;74:25-34.

Rouse M, Borsting E, Hyman L, Hussein M, Cotter S, Flynn M, et al. Frequency of convergence insufficiency among fifth and sixth graders. Optom Vis Sci. 1999;76:643-9.

Eye coordination problems can be mistaken for ADHD:

Borsting, E., M. Rouse and R. Chu (2005). "Measuring ADHD behaviors in children with symptomatic accommodative dysfunction or convergence insufficiency: a preliminary study." Optometry 76: 588-592.

Borsting, E., G. L. Mitchell, L. E. Arnold, M. Sheiman, C. Chase, M. Kulp, S. Cotter and C. R. Group (2013). "Behavioral and Emotional Problems Associated With Convergence Insufficiency in Children: An Open Trial." J Atten Disord.

Granet DB, Gomi CF, Ventura R and Miller-Scholte A (2005). "The relationship between convergence insufficiency and ADHD." Strabismus 13: 163-168.

Vision problems can block learning:

Barnhardt C, Cotter SA, Mitchell GL, Scheiman M, Kulp MT. Symptoms in children with convergence insufficiency: before and after treatment. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89(10):1512-20.

Rouse M, Borsting E, Mitchell GL, Kulp M, Scheiman M, Amster D, et al. Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD. Opt Vis Sci. 2009;86:1169-77.

Borsting E, Mitchell GL, Kulp MT, Scheiman M, Amster DM, Cotter S, et al. Improvement in academic behaviors after successful treatment of convergence insufficiency. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89(1):12-8.

Eye coordination and focusing problems are treatable:

Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group. Randomized clinical trial of treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1336-49.

Sterner B, Abrahamsson M, Sjostrom A. The effects of accommodative facility training on a group of children with impaired relative accommodation--a comparison between dioptric treatment and sham treatment. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). 2001;21(6):470-6.

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